Monday, May 9, 2016

Mixed Bloods

This past Saturday I had an anonymous reader try to comment on this blog. I didn't post it, instead I thought it's a good subject to write about, here is his comment:
"The term mixed-blood in the United States is most often employed for individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry.Some of the most prominent in the 19th century were mixed-blood or mixed-race descendants of fur traders and Native American women along the northern frontier. The fur traders tended to be men of social standing, and they often married or had relationships with daughters of Native American chiefs, consolidating social standing on both sides. They formed the upper tier of what was for years in the 18th and 19th centuries a two-tier society at settlements at trading posts, with other Europeans, American Indians and mixed-blood or Métis workers below them.[1] Mixed-blood is also used occasionally in Canadian accounts to refer to the nineteenth century Anglo-Métis population rather than Métis, which referred to people of First Nations and French descent."
Well, what anonymous posted , was a copy/paste from Wikipedia:

From the 'Talk' section of this Wiki post one person comments "I don't think Native Americans have a monopoly on the term "mixed blood." It's just a generic and archaic term for an interracial person in general." Anybody can write and or edit a Wikipedia article.

If you look a little farther you will find these examples of the use of the term 'Mixed Bloods':

The Melungeons: A Mixed-Blood Strain of the Southern Appalachians
Edward T. Price
Geographical Review
Vol. 41, No. 2 (Apr., 1951), pp. 256-271

The Mixed-Blood Racial Strain of Carmel,
Ohio, and Magoffin County, Kentucky
Price, Edward T.
The Ohio Journal of Science. v50 n6 (November, 1950), 281-290

From Joanne Pezzullo : "If Vardy Collins and Buck Gibson were the 'head and source' of the
Melungeons then Valentine Collins and Bryson Gibson are likely the 'head and source' of the Carmel Indians or as they were called in Kentucky, 'The Brown People of Magoffin County"

Valentine Collins is my 4th Great-grandfather

Gilbert, Jr., William Harlen (1946), "Mixed Bloods of the Upper Monongahela Valley, West Virginia";
Journal of the Washington Academy of the Sciences, Vol. 36, no. 1 (Jan. 15, 1946), pp 1–13.

Trends in the Naming of Tri-Racial Mixed-Blood Groups in the Eastern United States
A. R. Dunlap and C. A. Weslager
American Speech
Vol. 22, No. 2 (Apr., 1947), pp. 81-87
Published by: Duke University Press

Reuter, Edward Byron.  The Mulatto in the United States, Including a Study of the Role of Mixed-Blood Races Throughout the World.
Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1918.  Pp. 81-85.

American Tri-racial Isolates:
Their Status and Pertinence to Genetic Research
By Calvin L. Beale
Eugenics Quarterly 4/4 (December 1957): 187-196.

from this paper:
"The habitat of the mixed-blood people has been typically rural and geographically isolated.
Although the precise origin of these groups is unknown in most instances, they seem to have formed
through miscegenation between Indians, whites, and Negroes - slave or free - in the Colonial and early Federal periods. In places the offspring of such unions  many of which were illegitimate under the law - tended to marry among themselves."

Almost White:A Provocative Study of  America's Mixed Blood Minorities by Brewton Berry
1963 Collier-Macmillan Books Ltd.

Almost White, first published in 1963 by sociologist Brewton Berry (1901-1993), examines the rich mix of white, black, and native American “races” found in the southeastern United States. Based on extensive field research and interviews, Berry describes the groups, ranging in size from a few families to the 30,000 plus Lumbee “Indians” of North Carolina.

My direct Collins line is shown on the US census starting in 1790 as 'Free White', 1800 as 'Free Other', then an assortment of 'FPC', 'White', 'Indian' and most commonly 'Mulatto', even as recently as 1910. I have a 4th Great-grandmother and a 3rd Great-grandmother (Mother and Daughter) shown as 'B' for black on their death papers, even though they were mixed bloods.

Furthermore, my Collins line has an African Y-DNA Haplogroup, atDNA analyzation using raw data from 2 different atDNA tests down loaded to GEDmatch, shows mostly European, with some African and American Indian, and a small amount of Central Asian.

Thus, I stand by the title of this blog, and the heritage I inherited from my ancestors.

That's my 2 cents.... 

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